Comparto un poco de análisis que hice hace seis meses sobre el mercado de derechos de emisión de CO2 europeo. Me tome un año para hacer un Máster en Energía, Comercio y Finanzas en la escuela de negocios Cass en la City. Me gasté todos mis ahorros para acabar otra vez de economista en el sector público - no era la idea, pero que se le va a hacer. Me lo pasé bien y este análisis todavía es válido, aunque convendría actualizarlo con los datos de los últimos seis meses.
"If emissions permits were a scarce resource they would encourage CO2-saving investment and behaviour. The rationale behind emissions trading is that being a market instrument it will encourage CO2 savings where they can be achieved more efficiently (i.e. at the least cost). Initially then we would expect savings to come simply from switching electricity generation to less dirty energy sources (for example coal to gas) and eventually when such ‘quick wins’ were exhausted they would encourage investment in more expensive renewable energy.
However, European governments have sought to provide additional incentives for investment in renewable electricity generation capacity. A classic example is Spain.
Figure 8 shows the change in the last five years in installed electricity generation capacity in Spain by energy source. Clearly, the energy mix has become a lot cleaner, with no new investment in coal-fired electricity, divestment in fuel-fired generation, and very large increases in CCGT and wind-power generation.
The large increases in installed renewable energy capacity have been achieved at a large cost. Subsidies since 2004 have exceeded 11 billion euros, with the subsidy over and above the standard tariff increasing gradually from under €30 per MWh to over €70 per MWh currently – a large part of the increase explained by huge subsidies to Solar Photovoltaic investments, which receive an average subsidy of €400 per MWh generated (CNE, 2009). Implied in these subsidies is an average cost of €38 per ton of CO2 saved during the period, rising to €82 per ton in the last 12 months.
At this cost Spain has been able to achieve the large reduction in the carbon intensity of its electricity generation illustrated in Figure 10. The carbon intensity of electricity generation in the last 12 months is 27% lower than it was in 2005: each MWh generated in the last 12 months generated 268kg of CO2 compared to 366kg in 2005."